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Glossary


Terms in glossary: 42.

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N-acetyl-B-hexosaminidase
An enzyme hydrolyzing terminal non-reducing N-acetyl-D-hexosamine residues in N-acetyl-beta-D-hexosaminides. It acts on GLUCOSIDES; GALACTOSIDES; and several OLIGOSACCHARIDES. Hexosaminidase A cleaves GM2, GA2, globosides, and hexosamine oligosaccharides. Hexosaminidase B cleaves all the above substrates except GM2. Deficiency of Hexosaminidase A causes TAY-SACHS DISEASE, while deficiency of both A and B isozymes causes SANDHOFF DISEASE. The enzyme has also been used as a tumor marker to distinguish between malignant and benign disease.
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phospholipase
An enzyme that hydrolyzes phospholipids into fatty acids and other lipophilic substances. There are four major classes, termed A, B, C and D distinguished by what type of reaction they catalyze. Because their products are often second messengers, they are highly regulated by the cell.
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probiotic
A microbe that protects its host and prevents disease. The best-known probiotic is Lactobacillus acidophilus, which is found in yogurt, acidophilus milk, and supplements. Probiotics counter the decimation of helpful intestinal bacteria by antibiotics. Probiotics given in combination with antibiotics are therefore useful in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea. The yeast S. boulardii and three strains of Lactobacillus have also been shown to be useful in this regard.
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protease
A enzyme whose catalytic function is to hydrolyze (breakdown) peptide bonds of proteins by a process known as proteolysis. Each type of protease has a specific kind of peptide bonds it breaks.
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serum
The clear liquid that can be separated from clotted blood. Serum differs from plasma, the liquid portion of normal unclotted blood containing the red and white cells and platelets. It is the clot that makes the difference between serum and plasma. The term "serum" also is used to designate any normal or pathological fluid that resembles serum as, for example, the fluid in a blister. "Serum" is a Latin word that refers to the "whey", the watery liquid that separates from the curds in the process of cheesemaking.
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Shigella
From Wikipedia.org: Shigella is a genus of Gram-negative, non-spore forming rod-shaped bacteria closely related to Escherichia coli and Salmonella. The causative agent of human shigellosis, Shigella cause disease in primates, but not in other mammals. It is only naturally found in humans and apes. During infection, it typically causes dysentery. The genus is named after Kiyoshi Shiga, who first discovered it in 1898.
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sputum
Sputum is matter that is expectorated from the respiratory tract, such as mucus or phlegm, mixed with saliva, which can then be spat from the mouth. It is usually associated with air passages in diseased lungs, bronchi, or upper respiratory tract. It can be found to contain blood if in a chronic cough possibly from severe cases of tuberculosis. A sputum sample is the name given to the mucus that is coughed up from the lower airways. It is usually used for microbiological investigations of respiratory infections.
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sterol
Sterols are an important class of organic molecules. They occur naturally in plants, animals and fungi, with the most familiar type of animal sterol being cholesterol. Cholesterol is vital to cellular function, and a precursor to fat-soluable vitamins and steroid hormones.
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symbiosis
In parasitology, the close association of two dissimilar organisms, classified as mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, amensalism, or synnecrosis, depending on the advantage or disadvantage derived from the relationship.
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systemic infection
Etymology: Gk, systema + L, inficere, to stain. An infection in which the pathogen is distributed throughout the body rather than concentrated in one area. For example, systemic disorders such as high blood pressure or systemic diseases such as influenza affect the entire body. An infection that is in the bloodstream is called a systemic infection whereas an infection that affects only one body part or organ is called a localized infection.
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Thrush
Oral thrush is a condition in which the fungus Candida albicans accumulates on the lining of your mouth. Oral thrush causes creamy white lesions, usually on your tongue or inner cheeks. The lesions can be painful and may bleed slightly when you scrape them. Sometimes oral thrush may spread to the roof of your mouth, your gums, tonsils or the back of your throat. Although oral thrush can affect anyone, it's more likely to occur in babies and people who wear dentures, use inhaled corticosteroids or have compromised immune systems.
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Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is an auto-immune disease where the body's immune system destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. This type of diabetes, also known as juvenile-onset diabetes, accounts for 10-15% of all people with the disease. It can appear at any age, although commonly under 40, and is triggered by environmental factors such as viruses, diet or chemicals in people genetically predisposed. People with type 1 diabetes must inject themselves with insulin several times a day and follow a careful diet and exercise plan.
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Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes, affecting 85-90% of all people with the disease. This type of diabetes, also known as late-onset diabetes, is characterised by insulin resistance and relative insulin deficiency. The disease is strongly genetic in origin but lifestyle factors such as excess weight, inactivity, high blood pressure and poor diet are major risk factors for its development. Symptoms may not show for many years and, by the time they appear, significant problems may have developed. People with type 2 diabetes are twice as likely to suffer cardiovascular disease. Type 2 diabetes may be treated by dietary changes, exercise and/or tablets. Insulin injections may later be required.
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vaginal candidiasis
candidal infection of the vagina, and usually also the vulva, commonly characterized by pruritus, creamy white discharge, vulvar erythema and swelling, and dyspareunia. Commonly referred to as a "yeast infection", it is more accurately a localized infection caused by the fungus Candida albicans.
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villi
villus ( pl. villi) Anatomy any of numerous minute elongated projections set closely together on a surface, typically increasing its surface area for the absorption of substances, in particular: a fingerlike projection of the lining of the small intestine, a fold of the chorion. ORIGIN early 18th cent.: from Latin, literally a shaggy hair
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white blood cells
White blood cells, or leukocytes (also spelled "leucocytes," "leuco-" being Greek for white), are cells of the immune system involved in defending the body against both infectious disease and foreign materials. Five different and diverse types of leukocytes exist, but they are all produced and derived from a multipotent cell in the bone marrow known as a hematopoietic stem cell. Leukocytes are found throughout the body, including the blood and lymphatic system. The number of WBCs in the blood is often an indicator of disease. - From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
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yeast
A group of single-celled fungi that reproduce by budding. Most yeast are harmless (some are used in baking and brewing). Yeast is commonly present on normal human skin and in areas of moisture, such as the mouth and vagina, usually without causing any problems. However, yeast in its pathogenic fungal form causes thrush (oral infection) and diaper rash in infants, fingernail infections, vaginal area infections in women after puberty, and a host of other problems.
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